What are reactive oxygen species?
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive, short-lived forms of oxygen such as hydroxyl radical, hydroperoxyl radical, superoxide radical anion, and singlet oxygen.
How are reactive oxygen species formed?
Clean Chemistry produces ROS by chemical and electrochemical methods in liquid formulations that produce a cascade of ROS-forming reactions, which are both inherent and in response to the environment in which they are used.
What are the byproducts of reactive oxygen species formulations?
Byproducts of reactive oxygen species formulations include oxygen, water, and non-toxic, biodegradable organic acid salts and alcohols.
What happens to iron and other impurities?
The oxidants and ROS in PeroxyMax oxidize metals, such as iron, while contributing oxygen atoms to form oxide particles with surface charge that promotes flocculation. Impurities that coagulate with iron oxides are flocculated and removed with the iron.
How does salinity affect performance?
PeroxyMax relies on a combination of oxidants and ROS that are little affected by the presence of salt, bicarbonate and hardness.
What does the oxidant do to emulsions?
The oxidants and ROS in PeroxyMax start in the aqueous phase and can oxidize the surface of oil droplets, thereby disrupting the surface charge and surface tension between emulsified phases thereby allowing them to coalesce more rapidly.
Are the oxidants selective?
Yes, the lower oxidation potentials of oxidants and ROS in PeroxyMax allow the most kinetically favored oxidation and reduction reactions to occur by selective pathways. For example; reduced metals, unsaturated hydrocarbons, sulfides, and amines can be oxidized at various rates while saturated hydrocarbons are little affected.
Are bromates or chlorates formed?
No, the oxidation potentials of oxidants and ROS in PeroxyMax are not great enough to convert bromide to bromate or chloride to chlorate as occurs for ozone.
Why are the Clean Chemistry’s ROS recipes better than the previous generation of ROS recipes?
Our ROS solutions provide high concentrations of multiple reactive species which are effective over a wide pH range (5-12), at high salinity and with high suspended solids. These solutions are more convenient and effective to use than other approaches and the dominant ROS are selective (they don’t react with everything).
Competing ROS treatments are effective in relatively clean water, but are very inefficient in highly contaminated water. Competing ROS formulations are typically based on activating hydrogen peroxide with iron catalysts (Fenton) at an acidic pH or activation of hydrogen peroxide with UV light or ozone. These approaches are limited in their applications as they rely heavily on the hydroxyl radical species and ozone-derived species, which are non-selective in their reactivity and are very inefficient in high salinity, high hardness and highly impaired water with high suspended solids. UV light does not transmit through highly contaminated water for peroxide activation and UV lamps are rapidly coated with oils and scaling minerals. High levels of hydrogen peroxide will emulsify oils and can interfere with ROS-based treatments. Salt and carbonate rapidly quench the hydroxyl radical. Ozone and stronger oxidants, like hydroxyl radical, oxidize salts to form toxic chlorate and carcinogenic bromate byproducts.
There are a few other approaches that have yet to be scaled up or have significant cost and technological hurdles. Clean Chemistry possesses competing IP and technologies it feels are valuable for future ROS product development.
Do you ever advocate working with other water solutions (EC, membrane, etc.), or is it CC all the way?
We do advocate using us as a “pretreatment” ahead of membranes, evaporators, EC, DAF clarifiers and biological treatment processes. But these more extensive processes are more expensive, complex and should be used only when necessary. CC is the least expensive option with the simplest equipment. We also can pretreat ahead of an oil-water separator, which is a simple step that CC can provide.
How can Clean Chemistry help my membrane process?
Using PeroxyMax ahead of membrane processes can oxidize the organic coating of submicron colloidal particles allowing them to agglomerate and be removed by settling thus reducing membrane fouling.
How can Clean Chemistry reduce my overall chemical costs in a traditional floc and drop system?
By using PeroxyMax to facilitate oil water separation and to oxidize organic matter, coagulant and polymer doses can be reduced due to an increase in their efficiency.
How can Clean Chemistry help my H2S issues?
Our processes can reduce H2S downhole as well as mitigate it on surface in impaired waters. Our products react rapidly with H2S to oxidize it to elemental sulfur.
How is Clean Chemistry able to be such a small platform, but treat such large volumes of water?
Since Clean Chemistry’s process is all chemical our platform is essentially a customized pump skid and we are able to deliver a very large amount of chemistry with a small footprint requiring no more than a standard wall outlet to power the unit.
Why is Clean Chemistry’s platform so cost competitive?
By being an all chemical process, Clean Chemistry is able reduce the capital cost of its platform by almost 10x versus the fancy trailer guys.
How is Clean Chemistry able to deliver so much flexibility in its treatment?
By leveraging our proprietary oxidant PeroxyMax with highly flexible equipment and industry experience, we are able to adapt our process on the fly by essentially turning knobs to meet changing water quality challenges and requirements.
How quickly can Clean Chemistry deploy for a field trial?
Depending on requirements, Clean Chemistry has equipment ready to go and can deploy to most areas in as little as a week for short trials.
What differentiates Clean Chemistry in the market of new water treatment technologies, many of these technologies are seemingly black boxes?
Clean Chemistry’s processes are developed around our proprietary oxidants. At Clean Chemistry we were able to develop a previously unknown process to economically generate ROS in mass quantity. The way our process works is similar to that of chlorine dioxide generation in that we start with chemical feedstocks on location and then blend them together to generate our oxidants.