PeroxyMAX

Jars from blue to clear represent PeroxyMAX oxidant technology. A chemical equation is seen in the foreground

Advanced Oxidation Technology.

PeroxyMAX, Clean Chemistry’s patented high-performing oxidation chemical technology, is uniquely capable of disrupting traditional oxidant and biocide markets with a combination of cost, safety, and performance advantages. Driven by green chemistry and pollution prevention design principles, PeroxyMAX was developed as an effective, practical alternative to conventional oxidants such as chlorine, hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid, and permanganate. PeroxyMAX is inherently safer in the workplace and less damaging to equipment and the environment. Uses include water treatment, microbial control (registered under FIFRA), sulfide removal, well remediation, odor control, fermentation additive, pulp delignification, bleaching, and brightening.

Advantages

  • “Inherently safer” technology
  • Low/reduced capital and operating costs
  • Less damaging or corrosive to equipment and textiles
  • Non-persistent in the environment, residuals generally recognized as safe (GRAS)
  • No added stabilizers to impact food contact uses
  • Free of chloride, sulfate, and phosphate
  • Prevents toxic halogenated byproduct formation
  • Greater compatibility with other water treatment chemicals

PeroxyMAX is an activated alkyl peroxide formulation in water that efficiently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) at a rate that is practical to dispense as a liquid product. The ROS “supercharges” the oxidative activity of the parent peroxide. The primary ROS in PeroxyMAX is singlet oxygen, which is molecular oxygen (O2) in an excited state. The combination of oxidizing species in PeroxyMAX provides enhanced performance while generating a significant oxidation-reduction potential signature which can be monitored and correlated to concentration or efficacy in a treatment process.

PeroxyMAX continuously transforms “activated” peroxides into a combination of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), including Singlet Oxygen

By its nature, singlet oxygen is short-lived in water and reacts quickly with certain kinds of materials but not with others. This unique selectivity, in comparison to hydroxyl radical or ozone, allows it to do specific jobs in the presence of materials including salinity, oil, ammonia and numerous water treatment chemicals.

The selective reactivity of PeroxyMAX is also very beneficial for avoiding corrosion and degradation of equipment and materials. The inherent selectivity makes the chemistry less aggressive towards sensitive metals, polymers and elastomers. Through years of product experience and extensive lab testing the selectivity of PeroxyMAX to target contaminants over other materials has been well established.

Corrosion Coupon Comparison

Three corrosion coupons show the effect of dissolved oxygen on metal

Dissolved oxygen

Three corrosion coupons show the effect of PeroxyMAX on metal

Peroxymax

Three corrosion coupons show the effect of chlorine dioxide on metal

Chlorine Dioxide

Biocidal Treatment Exposure of Nylon 6,6

Three corrosion coupons show the effect of dissolved oxygen on metal

Peroxymax

Three corrosion coupons show the effect of PeroxyMAX on metal

Hypochlorite

Three corrosion coupons show the effect of chlorine dioxide on metal

Hypobromite

Because of the relatively short half-life of the PeroxyMAX chemistry it is generated on site and on demand in water from three stable, non-flammable liquid feedstocks in a safe, automated process. As a result, there is no storage required for the active product and no use of stabilizers toxic to the environment.

What are ROS?

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) refers to multiple forms or energy states of oxygen with greater activity or reactivity than molecular oxygen, O2, present in air. Several ROS are naturally occurring in the environment, play critical roles in biological systems, and many have been harnessed for commercial uses. Common examples of ROS include hydroxyl radical (HO), hydroperoxyl radical (HOO), superoxide radical anion (O2•-), excited-state singlet oxygen (1O2), and ozone (O3). In general, ROS in water are short-lived and, for commercial uses, are generated at the point of use or in-situ. ROS uses include:

  • Sanitization, disinfection
  • Oxidation
  • Breakdown of hydrocarbons, halocarbons, and other contaminants
  • Bleaching
  • Chemical and polymer production

Each ROS has a different oxidation potential and reactivity profile making them useful in different situations.

The most powerful, but shortest-lived, ROS in water treatment conditions is the hydroxyl radical, which is useful for breaking down most chemical contaminants (a non-selective oxidizer) and is readily produced by in-situ chemical catalysis or photolysis methods. However, hydroxyl radicals reacts very rapidly with salts, carbonate, peroxide and itself which greatly reduces its efficiency, especially in salt water. At the other end of the oxidation spectrum is superoxide, which can selectively oxidize or reduce specific materials and is an important intermediate in catalytic cycles (e.g., Fenton) and cellular chemistry. Singlet oxygen is of interest for its selective oxidative reactivity and biocidal properties compared to other ROS, especially in the presence of salts, water treatment chemicals, cellulose and textiles.

DID YOU KNOW?

Oxidation technologies play a crucial role in nearly every aspect of modern life including manufacturing, water treatment, food production, mineral extraction, and disease prevention. Industrial oxidation processes with chlorine were common in textile and pulp bleaching by the late 1700’s and used in hospitals for disinfection by the mid-1800’s. The first documented chlorination of a public water supply in the United States was in 1909. While these advancements were beneficial to society, the associated hazards and toxic byproducts of chlorine-based oxidation chemistry also had severe negative impacts on health and the environment. Over time, many other industrial oxidants and technologies to produce them were developed, exhibiting new performance capabilities, improved safety, and reduced pollution. Clean Chemistry’s oxidant technology leverages the latest technological advances to meet sustainability objectives for industrial chemistry.

An image shows lab equipment used to test bleaching capacity in the lab